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Aspirin’s origins go back at least as early as 1758. In that year, Englishman Edward Stone noticed a distinctive bitter flavor in the bark of the willow tree. To Stone, this particular bark seemed to have much in common with “Peruvian Bark,” which had been used medicinally since the 1640s to bring down fevers and to treat malaria. Stone decided to test the effectiveness of the willow bark. He obtained some, pulverized it into tiny pieces, and conducted experiments on its properties. His tests demonstrated that this pulverized willow bark was effective both in reducing high temperatures and in relieving aches and pains. In 1763, Stone presented his findings to the British Royal Society.
Several decades later, further studies on the medicinal value of the willow bark were being conducted by two Italian scientists. These chemists, Brugnatelli and Fontana, determined that the active chemical that was responsible for the medicinal characteristics in the willow bark was the chemical salicin, which is the active ingredient of today’s aspirin.
The name “aspirin” is the trade name of the drug based on the chemical salicin, properly known as acetylsalicylic acid. The trade name “aspirin” was invented for the drug in the 1890s by the Bayer Drug Company in Germany. The first bottles of aspirin actually went on sale to the public just prior to the turn of the century, in 1899.
1. According to the passage, aspirin originated
(A) no later than 1758
(B) sometime after 1758
(C) definitely sometime in 1758
(D) no earlier than 1758
2. It can be inferred from the passage that Peruvian Bark
(A) caused fevers
(B) was ineffective in treating malaria
(C) was described to the British Royal Society by Stone
(D) was in use prior to aspirin
3. The pronoun “it” in line 5 refers to
(B) willow bark
(D) the British Royal Society
4. The word “properties” in line 6 could best be replaced by
5. What did the willow bark look like after Stone prepared it for his experiments?
(A) It was in large chunks.
(B) It was a thick liquid.
(C) It was a rough powder.
(D) It was in strips of bark.
6. The Italian chemists mentioned in the passage most probably conducted their
studies on willow bark
(A) in the 1750s
(B) in the 1760s
(C) in the 1770s
(D) in the 1780s
7. What is true about Brugnatelli and Fontana?
(A) They were from Italy.
(B) They added a chemical to the willow bark.
(C) They conducted studies on the willow bark.
(D) They were medical doctors.
8. The expression “prior to” in line 14 could best be replaced by
9. The word “turn” in line 15 could best be replaced by
10. Where in the passage does the author name the scientific compound that makes
(A) Lines 2-4
(B) Line 7
(C) Lines 8-9
(D) Lines 14-15
Herman Melville, an American author best known today for his novel Moby Dick, was actually more popular during his lifetime for some of his other works. He traveled extensively and used the knowledge gained during his travels as the basis for his early novels. In 1837, at the age of eighteen, Melville signed as a cabin boy on a merchant ship that was to sail from his Massachusetts home to Liverpool, England. His experiences on this trip served as a basis for the novel Redburn (1849). In 1841 Melville set out on a whaling ship headed for the South Seas. After jumping ship in Tahiti, he wandered around the islands of Tahiti and Moorea. This South Sea island sojourn was a backdrop to the novel Omoo (1847). After three years away from home, Melville joined up with a U.S. naval frigate that was returning to the eastern United States around Cape Horn. The novel White Jacket (1850) describes this lengthy voyage as a navy seaman.
With the publication of these early adventure novels, Melville developed a strong and loyal following among readers eager for his tales of exotic places and situations. However, in 1851, with the publication of Moby Dick, Melville’s popularity started to diminish. Moby Dick, on one level the saga of the hunt for the great white whale, was also a heavily symbolic allegory of the heroic struggle of humanity against the universe. The public was not ready for Melville’s literary metamorphosis from romantic adventure to philosophical symbolism. It is ironic that the novel that served to diminish Melville’s popularity during his lifetime is the one for which he is best known today.
11 The main subject of the passage is
(A) Melville’s travels
(B) the popularity of Melville’s novels
(C) Melville’s personal background
(D) Moby Dick
12 According to the passage, Melville’s early novels were
(A) published while he was traveling
(B) completely fictional
(C) all about his work on whaling ships
(D) based on his travels
13 In what year did Melville’s book about his experiences as a cabin boy appear?
(A) 1837 (C) 1841
(B) 1847 (D) 1849
14 The word “basis” in line 3 is closest in meaning to
15 The passage implies that Melville stayed in Tahiti because
(A) he had unofficially left his ship
(B) he was on leave while his ship was in port
(C) he had finished his term of duty
(D) he had received permission to take a vacation in Tahiti
16 A “frigate” in line 10 is probably
(A) an office
(B) a ship
(C) a troop
(D) a train
17 How did the publication of Moby Dick affect Melville’s popularity?
(A) His popularity increased immediately.
(B) It had no effect on his popularity.
(C) It caused his popularity to decrease.
(D) His popularity remained as strong as ever.
18 According to the passage, Moby Dick is
(A) a romantic adventure
(B) a single-faceted work
(C) a short story about a whale
(D) symbolic of humanity fighting the environment
19 The word “metamorphosis” in line 15 is closest in meaning to
20 The passage would most likely be assigned reading in a course on
(A) nineteenth-century novels
(B) American history
(D) modern American literature
Up to now, confessions that have been obtained from defendants in a hypnotic state have not been admitted into evidence by courts in the United States. Experts in the field of hypnosis have found that such confessions are not completely reliable. Subjects in a hypnotic state may confess to crimes they did not commit for one of two reasons. Either they fantasize that they committed the crimes or they believe that others want them to confess.
A landmark case concerning a confession obtained under hypnosis went all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court. In the case of Layra V. Denno, a suspect was hypnotized by a psychiatrist for the district attorney; in a posthypnotic state the suspect signed three separate confessions to a murder. The Supreme Court ruled that the confessions were invalid because the confessions had been the only evidence against him.
1 This passage would probably be assigned reading in a course on
(A) American law
(B) psychiatric healing
Chamber music received its name because it was originally intended to be performed in small rooms in private homes rather than huge concert halls or theaters. Today it has evolved into small ensemble music in which each performer in the ensemble plays an individual part.
The compositions written for this type of performance can easily be classified into three distinct periods, each with its style of music and instrumentation. In the earliest period (1450-1650), the viol and other instrumental families developed considerably, and instrumental music took its first steps toward equal footing with vocal music. In the second period (1650-1750), trio sonatas dominated. These ensemble compositions were often written for two violins and a cello; the harpsichord was also featured in various compositions of this period. In the modern period (after 1750), the preponderance of chamber music was written for the string quartet, an ensemble composed of two violins, a viola, and a cello.
1 Where in the passage does the author discuss the modern definition of chamber
(A) Lines 3-4
(B) Lines 4-5
(C) Lines 8-9
(D) Lines 9-11
2. Where in the passage does the author discuss the period when ensembles for three
(A) Lines 2-3
(B) Lines 4-5
(C) Lines 7-9
(D) Lines 9-11
3 Where in the passage does the author mention music written for four strings?
(A) Lines 2-3
(B) Lines 4-5
(C) Lines 7-9
(D) Lines 9-11
The next hormone is epinephrine, or adrenaline. This hormone is a natural secretion of the adrenal glands in the human body. Its primary function in the human body is to assist the body in coping with sudden surges of stress. When a person unexpectedly finds himself in a stressful situation filled with fear or anger, a large amount of epinephrine is released into the blood and the body responds with an increased heartbeat, higher blood pressure, and conversion of glycogen into glucose for energy to enable the body to deal with the stress.
It is possible to extract epinephrine from the adrenal glands of animals or to synthesize it chemically in order to put it to further use. It is used in the treatment of severe asthma, where it relaxes the large muscles of the bronchi, the large air passages leading into the lungs. It is also used in cases of severe allergic reaction or cardiac arrest.
1 The paragraph preceding the passage most probably discusses
(A) further uses of epinephrine
(B) the treatment of cardiac arrest
(C) a different hormone
(D) the secretions of the adrenal glands
2 What is another name for epinephrine?
(A) Adrenal glands
(B) Stressful situation
3 Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a result of the release of epinephrine in
(A) Severe asthma
(B) An increase in blood pressure
(C) Higher heartbeat
(D) Increased energy
4 It is implied in the passage that increased heartbeat
(A) harms the body
(B) causes the release of epinephrine into the body
(C) is helpful in combating the stressful situation
(D) is useful in treating asthma
5 The passage indicates that epinephrine is used in the treatment of all of the
(B) high blood pressure
(C) serious allergic reactions
(D) heart problems
6 What are the “bronchi” in line 10?
(A) A large muscle
(B) Air passages
(C) The lungs
(D) Part of the heart
7 Which of the following best expresses the organization of the information in the
(A) Epinephrine and adrenaline
(B) Various effects of epinephrine on the body
(C) Causes of sudden stress
(D) Epinephrine’s natural functions and further applications
1. Unfortunately, neither Mr. Sachs … Ms. Flyyn will be able to attend the awards banquet this evening.
2. According to the manufacture, the new generator is capable of … the amount of power consumed by our facility by nearly ten percent.
3. After the main course, choose from our wide … of homemade desserts.
4. Faculty members are planning to … a party in honor of Dr. Walkerm who will retire at the end of the semester.
5. Many employees seem more … now about how to use the new telephone system that they did before they attended the workshop.
6. … our production figures improve in the near future, we foresee having to hire more people between now and July.
7. The prime minister is expected to arrive at the convention hall at … 7.00 PM.
8. As the filming location has not yet been … , the release date has been postpone.
9. Extreme … should be used when the forklift truck is being operated.
10.The country hospital is currently … volunteers to staff the reception.
a. look to
b. looking for
c. looking around
d. looking into
11.We are a major international company with a growing number of … in North America.
12.The report indicates that Tibrook Fund is acting properly by delivering policy advice … rather than announcing it to the public.
13.This presentation will demonstrate how Metron computers are superior … those of our competitors in terms of both features and speed.
14.The Executive Council of the Fashion Buyer’s Congress is … of fifteen members from various branches of the fashion industry.
d. to compose
15.Though their performance was relatively unpolished, the actors held the audience’s … for the duration of the play.
16.Dr. Abernathy’s donation to Owston Collage broke the record for the largest private gift .. given to the campus.
17.Savat National Park is … by train, bus, charter plane, and rental car.
18.In Piazzo’s latest architectural project, he hopes to … his flare for blending contemporary and tranditional ideals.
19.Replacing the office equipment that the company purchased only three years ago seems quite …
20.On … , employees reach their peak performance level when they have been on the job for at least two years.
21.We were … unaware of the problems with the air-conditioning units in the hotel rooms until this week.
22.If you send in an order … mail, we recommended that you phone our sales division directly to confirm the orders.
23.A recent global survey suggests … demand for aluminum and tin will remain at its current level for the next five to ten.
24.Rates for the use of recreation facilities do not include tax and are subject to change without …
25.We conduct our audits in accordance … generally accepted auditing standards.
The technology of the North American coloniesdid not differ strikingly from that of Europe, butin one respect, the colonists enjoyed a greatadvantage. Especially by comparison with Britain,Americans had a wonderfully plentiful supply ofwood.
The first colonists did not, as many peopleimagine, find an entire continent covered by a
climax forest. Even along the Atlantic seaboard,the forest was broken at many points. Nevertheless,all sorts of fine trees abounded, and throughthe early colonial period, those who pushedwestward encountered new forests. By the endof the colonial era, the price of wood had risenslightly in eastern cities, but wood was stillextremely abundant.
The availability of wood brought advantagesthat have seldom been appreciated. Wood was afoundation of the economy. Houses and allmanner of buildings were made of wood to adegree unknown in Britain. Secondly, wood wasused as fuel for heating and cooking. Thirdly, itwas used as the source of important industrialcompounds, such as potash, an industrial alkali;charcoal, a component of gunpowder; andtannic acid, used for tanning leather.
The supply of wood conferred advantagesbut had some negative aspects as well. Iron at
that time was produced by heating iron ore withcharcoal. Because Britain was so stripped oftrees, she was unable to exploit her rich ironmines. But the American colonies had both ironore and wood; iron production was encouragedand became successful. However, when Britaindeveloped coke smelting, the Colonies did notfollow suit because they had plenty of wood andbesides, charcoal iron was stronger than cokeiron. Coke smelting led to technologic innovationsand was linked to the emergence of theIndustrial Revolution. In the early nineteenthcentury, the former colonies lagged behindBritain in industrial development because theirsupply of wood led them to cling to charcoaliron.
1. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) The advantages of using wood in thecolonies
(B) The effects of an abundance of woodon the colonies
(C) The roots of the Industrial Revolution
(D) The difference between charcoal ironand coke iron
2. The word strikingly in the first paragraph isclosest in meaning to
3. Which of the following is a commonassumption about the forests of NorthAmerica during
the colonial period?
(A) They contained only a few types of trees.
(B) They existed only along the Atlanticseaboard.
(C) They had little or no economic value.
(D) They covered the entire continent
4. According to the passage, by the end of thecolonial period, the price of wood ineastern
(A) rose quickly because wood wasbecoming so scarce.
(B) was much higher than it was inBritain.
(C) was slightly higher than in previousyears.
(D) decreased rapidly because of lowerdemand for wood.
5. What can be inferred about houses inBritain during the period written about inthe
(A) They were more expensive thanAmerican houses.
(B) They were generally built withimported materials.
(C) They were typically smaller thanhomes in North America.
(D) They were usually built from materialsother than wood
6. Why does the author mention gunpowderin paragraph 3?
(A) To illustrate the negative aspects ofsome industrial processes
(B) To give an example of a product madewith wood compounds
(C) To remind readers that the colonial eraended in warfare
(D) To suggest that wood was not the onlyimportant product of the colonies
7. The phrase follow suit in paragraph 4means
(A) do the same thing.
(B) make an attempt.
(C) have the opportunity.
(D) take a risk.
8. According to the passage, why was the useof coke smelting advantageous?
(A) It led to advances in technology.
(B) It was less expensive than woodsmelting.
(C) It produced a stronger type of ironthan wood smelting.
(D) It stimulated the demand for wood.cccc